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Anti-Dummy Law (As Amended)

COMMONWEALTH ACT NO. 108


AN ACT TO PUNISH ACTS OF EVASION OF THE LAWS ON THE NATIONALIZATION OF CERTAIN RIGHTS, FRANCHISES OR PRIVILEGES


SECTION 1. In all cases in which any constitutional or legal provision requires Philippine or United States citizenship as a requisite for the exercise or enjoyment of a right, franchise or privilege, any citizen of the Philippines or the United States who allows his name or citizenship to be used for the purpose of evading such provision, and any alien or foreigner profiting thereby, shall be punished by imprisonment for not less than two nor more than ten years, and by a fine of not less than two thousand nor more than ten thousand pesos.

The fact that the citizen of the Philippines or of the United States charged with a violation of this Act had, at the time of the acquisition of his holdings in the corporations or associations referred to in section two of this Act, no real or personal property, credit or other assets the value of which shall at least be equivalent to said holdings, shall be admissible as circumstantial evidence of a violation of this Act.

SECTION 2. In all cases in which a constitutional or legal provision requires that, in order that a corporation or association may exercise or enjoy a right, franchise or privilege, not less than a certain per centum of its capital must be owned by citizens of the Philippines or the United States, or both, it shall be unlawful to falsely simulate the existence of such minimum of stock or capital as owned by such citizens of the Philippines or the United States or both, for the purpose of evading said provision. The president or managers and directors or trustees of corporations or associations convicted of a violation of this section shall be punished by imprisonment for not less than two nor more than ten years, and by a fine of not less than two thousand nor more than ten thousand pesos.


SEC. 2-A. Any person, corporation, or association which, having in its name or under its control, a right, franchise, privilege, property or business, the exercise or enjoyment of which is expressly reserved by the Constitution or the laws to citizens of the Philippines or of any other specific country, or to corporations or associations at least sixty per centum of the capital of which is owned by such citizens, permits or allows the use, exploitation or enjoyment thereof by a person, corporation or association not possessing the requisites prescribed by the Constitution or the laws of the Philippines; or leases, or in any other way, transfers or conveys said right, franchise, privilege, property or business to a person, corporation or association not otherwise qualified under the Constitution, or the provisions of the existing laws; or in any manner permits or allows any person, not possessing the qualifications required by the Constitution, or existing laws to acquire, use, exploit or enjoy a right, franchise, privilege, property or business, the exercise and enjoyment of which are expressly reserved by the Constitution or existing laws to citizens of the Philippines or of any other specific country, to intervene in the management, operation, administration or control thereof, whether as an officer, employee or laborer therein with or without remuneration except technical personnel whose employment may be specifically authorized by the Secretary of Justice, and any person who knowingly aids, assists, or abets in the planning, consummation or perpetration of any of the acts herein above enumerated shall be punished by imprisonment for not less than five nor more than fifteen years and by a fine of not less than the value of the right, franchise or privilege enjoyed or acquired in violation of the provisions hereof but in no case less than five thousand pesos: Provided, however, that the president, managers or persons in charge of corporations, associations or partnerships violating the provisions of this section shall be criminally liable in lieu thereof: Provided, further, That any person, corporation or association shall, in addition to the penalty imposed herein, forfeit such right, franchise, privilege and the property or business enjoyed or acquired in violation of the provisions of this Act; and Provided, finally, That the election of aliens as members of the board of directors or governing body of corporations or associations engaging in partially nationalized activities shall be allowed in proportion to their allowable participation or share in the capital of such entities.


SEC. 2-B. Any violation of the provisions of this Act by the spouse of any public official, if both live together, shall be cause for the dismissal of such public official.


SEC. 2-C.The exercise, possession or control by a Filipino citizen having a common-law relationship with an alien of a right, privilege, property or business, the exercise or enjoyment of which is expressly reserved by the Constitution or the laws to citizens of the Philippines, shall constitute a prima facie evidence of violation of the provisions of Section 2-A hereof.


SECTION 3. Any corporation or association violating any of the provisions of this Act shall, upon proper court proceedings, be dissolved.


SECTION 4. This Act shall take effect upon its approval.

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